Among many agreements was a separate agreement with the United States, the Chester concession. In the United States, the treaty was rejected by several political groups, including the Committee against the Treaty of Lausanne (COLT), and on January 18, 1927, the U.S. Senate refused to ratify the treaty by 50 votes to 34, six votes less than the two-thirds requested by the Constitution.  As a result, Turkey cancelled the concession.  Italy`s claims about Libya date back to Turkey`s defeat to Russia in the 1877-1878 war, and then to the discussions that followed the Berlin Congress in 1878, in which France and Britain accepted the occupation of Tunisia and Cyprus, both parts of the failed Ottoman Empire. When Italian diplomats drew attention to possible opposition from their government, the French said That Tripoli had been the equivalent of Italy. Italy reached a secret agreement with Great Britain in February 1887 through an exchange of notes.  It provided that Italy would support Britain and its role in Egypt, while the Italians received British support in Libya.  In 1902, Italy and France signed a secret treaty granting freedom of intervention in Tripolitaine and Morocco.  The agreement negotiated by Italian Foreign Minister Giulio Prinetti and French Ambassador Camille Barrére was a final point in the historic rivalry between the two nations for control of North Africa. Also in 1902, Britain promised that « any change in Libya`s status would be in line with Italian interests. » These measures were aimed at easing Italy`s commitment to the Triple Alliance, weakening Germany, which France and Britain considered their main rival on the continent. Under the Anglo-Russian Convention and the creation of the Triple Agreement, Tsar Nicholas II and King Viktor Emmanuel III made the Racconigi Agreement in 1909, in which Russia recognized Italy`s interest in Tripoli and Cyrenaica in exchange for Italian support for Russian control of the Bosphorus.  However, the Italian government did little to seize the opportunity, so that knowledge of Libyan territory and resources remained scarce in the years that followed [The removal of diplomatic barriers coincided with increasing colonial fervor.
The nationalist Enrico Corradini launched the public call for action in Libya and, with the nationalist newspaper L`Idea Nazionale, called for an invasion in 1911.  At the end of March 1911, the Italian press launched an extensive lobbying campaign in favour of an invasion of Libya. It was imaginatively presented as mineral-rich, well irrigated and defended by only 4,000 Ottoman troops. Also the population was described as hostile to the Ottoman Empire and friendly with the Italians: the future invasion would be little more than a « military walk », according to them.  In 1911, the Italian government remained committed to maintaining the Ottoman Empire, which was a close friend of its German ally.